2017-11-18 15:01:27 clouds 27o High | Kigali Rwanda

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Amateka n’imigendekere y’urugamba rwo kubohora igihugu

Yanditswe na IMVAHO NSHYA

Kuya 2017-07-04 12:08:27

 
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Byose bijya gutangira byahereye ku bukoloni. Abakoloni bageze mu Rwanda (Abadage 1899-1916, Ababiligi 1916-1962) bambuye u Rwanda ubwigenge bwose rwari rufite haba mu rwego rwa politiki, ubukungu n’umuco. Ubutegetsi bw’u Rwanda bwasigaye bukorera inyungu zabo aho gukorera iz’Abanyarwanda.

Abo bakoloni baciyemo ibice Abanyarwanda kugira ngo babone uko babategeka, bigisha amacakubiri mu banyarwanda, bahimba ko badakomoka hamwe, batanganya ubwigenge, badakwiye gukora imirimo imwe no kwiga amashuri amwe. Igihe cyarageze mu ntangiriro za 1950 Abanyafurika bahagurukiraga kurwanira ubwigenge, Abanyarwanda na bo ntibatanzwe.

Abakoloni ntibyagombaga kubashimisha, bityo mu rwego rwo kurwanya abaharaniraga ubwigenge mu Rwanda bari biganjemo Abatutsi, Ababiligi batangiye gukwirakwiza igitekerezo ko Abatutsi ari abanyamahanga, ko bakomotse muri Abisiniya, bityo bakangurira Abahutu kubatwikira, kubasenyera, kubica no kubamenesha.

Nyamara igihe cyarageze, ko abakoloni bava mu Rwanda, basize u Rwanda ari igihugu kirangwa n’urwikekwe, inzangano, umwiryane, ndetse bamwe mu banyarwanda bamaze kumeneshwa ngo si Abanyarwanda nk’abandi nk’uko byavuzwe haruguru.

Bigeze mu mpera za 1959, ishyaka rya MDR PARMEHUTU ryitabiriye gukomeza gushyira mu bikorwa inyigisho n’igitekerezo cy’abakoloni. Bityo, Abanyarwanda benshi baricwa, amazu yabo aratwikwa, inka ziraribwa, abarokotse ubwo bwicanyi bahungira mu bihugu bikikije u Rwanda, maze umubare munini wabo bahungira mu gihugu cya Uganda, abandi bajya i Burundi, Tanzania, Kongo na Kenya.

Ubutegetsi bw’igitugu n’ibyaburanze

Mu 1962 nyuma y’ubwo bwicanyi bwari buyobowe na MDR PARMEHUTU, iryo shyaka ryahise rigororerwa kuyobora u Rwanda. Kuva ubwo Abanyarwanda ntibatuje, ibibazo byarakomeye, kuko ubutegetsi bwa MDR PARMEHUTU (1962-1973), n’ubwa MRND ya Habyarimana (1973-1994) bwakomeje za nyigisho z’abakoloni. Ntibakemuye ibibazo by’amacakubiri u Rwanda rwari rufite, ahubwo yigishijwe ku mugaragaro.

Ubwo mu gihugu hatangiye kubibwa inzangano mu bagituye, guheza bamwe mu banyarwanda mu mashuri, mu mirimo no muri politiki. Hariho gusenyera, gutwikira no kwica bamwe mu banyarwanda abandi bakameneshwa, biza kubyara Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994.

Abanyarwanda bari barirukanywe mu gihugu cyabo nta ko batagize ngo bakigarukemo, nyamara ubutegetsi bwariho burabyanga. Amahanga na yo yashyizeho akayo, yotsa igitutu ubutegetsi bwa Habyarimana, bamusaba kureka Abanyarwanda birukanywe mu gihugu cyabo bagataha, ariko ntibyagira icyo bitanga, ahubwo ageza aho avuga ko u Rwanda rwuzuye, ko ari nk’ikirahuri cyuzuye amazi, ngo uwakongeraho andi yaseseka.

Hakozwe ibiganiro ndetse n’imishyikirano, ariko byose biba iby’ubusa. Ibi uko byakorwaga, ni ko ubutegetsi bwariho bwakomezaga gukandamiza bamwe mu banyarwanda bari mu gihugu imbere, maze igice kimwe cy’Abanyarwanda gihezwa mu nzego z’ubuyobozi bw’igihugu no mu iterambere.

Nta demukarasi yarangwaga mu gihugu, Abanyarwanda babaraga ubukeye. Ntibagiraga uruhare mu bibakorerwa, nta gahunda ihamye yo guteza imbere ubukungu yariho, nta cyerekezo igihugu cyagiraga, Abanyarwanda bakomeje kuzahazwa n’ubukene, indwara, ubujiji no guhanga amaso imfashanyo z’amahanga.

Inyungu z’abategetsi ni zo zashyirwaga imbere, aho gushyira imbere inyungu z’Abanyarwanda. Ibi ni byo byabyaye umuco wa ruswa, gutonesha, gusesagura umutungo w’igihugu no kuwunyereza.

Hari hasigaye gukoresha imbaraga mu gusubiza agaciro Abanyarwanda

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Inzira yari ndende, urubyiruko rwiganje mu bahagurukiye kubohora u Rwanda, aho bavugaga bati amaboko yacu azakorera u Rwanda

Mu 1979, bamwe mu banyarwanda barateranye, basuzuma ibibazo byari byugarije u Rwanda, maze biyemeza gushyira hamwe imbaraga zabo mu gutangiza Umutwe wa Politiki witwaga RANU (Rwandese Alliance for National Unity) wari ugamije gukemura ibyo bibazo.

Nyuma yo kubona ko nta bundi buryo nta n’indi nzira yo gukemura ibibazo byari mu Rwanda n’ibyari bifitwe n’Abanyarwanda, bamwe mu banyarwanda biyemeje guhaguruka, biyemeza gukoresha ingufu.

Abanyarwanda bari barahungiye mu gihugu cya Uganda barimo Maj. Gen. Fred Gisa Rwigema na Paul Kagame, barahagurutse, bakangurira Abanyarwanda gushyira hamwe imbaraga bakabohora igihugu cyabo.

Uku kwishyira hamwe byatumye Abanyarwanda bibumbiye muri RANU bitegura kurwanirira u Rwanda ngo bace akarengane, ivangura, ruswa n’igitugu mu Rwanda. Abana b’Abanyarwanda bajyaga muri RANU bashishikarizwaga gukunda igihugu cyabo no guhora bibuka ko ari bo bazakibohora, bagatozwa kwihangana, gukorana umurava no guhorana disipuline.

Mu 1987, hafashwe icyemezo cyo kwagura RANU, maze Abanyarwanda bose bakunda igihugu, abaharanira demukarasi, amahoro, ubumwe n’iterambere ry’u Rwanda, bahindura RANU iba “Front Patriotique Rwandais Inkotanyi/Rwandase Patriotic Front Inkotanyi” (FPR-Inkotanyi/RPF-Inkotanyi), hari ku wa 25 Ukuboza 1987.

Ni bwo hashyizweho inyandiko remezo, intego n’imigambi, amategeko remezo, imyitwarire y’Abanyamuryango ba FPR-Inkotanyi ndetse hashyirwaho n’abakada.

Bigeze mu 1990, habayeho ivugurura ry’inzego z’Umuryango FPR-Inkotanyi, maze hashimangirwa ibikorwa by’ubukangurambaga, imyitozo n’amahugurwa. Inzego nshya zongerewe ingufu, Umuryango kandi uteza imbere imikoranire y’inzego za gisirikare n’iza gisivile. Ubwo Fred Gisa Rwigema ni we wahise atorerwa kuyobora Umuryango FPR-Inkotanyi.

Iki gihe ni bwo Umuryango wegereye abo ari bo bose bahuje umugambi wo gukunda u Rwanda, aho bari hose, abato n’abakuru, abagabo n’abagore, abakize cyangwa abakene, kandi bose si ko bari bahuje imyumvire ya politiki, ahubwo icyo bari bahuriyeho ni ugukunda u Rwanda. Intego yari ihuriweho na bose yari imwe, “Kubohora u Rwanda”, rugasubizwa Abanyarwanda, Umunyarwanda akongera kugira agaciro.

Ku itariki ya 1 Ukwakira 1990 ni bwo FPR yahagurutse, maze itangira urugamba rwo kubohora u Rwanda. Igihe bari bageze i Kagitumba, Maj. Gen. Fred Rwigema, yasobanuye mu magambo make impamvu y’urugamba rw’Inkotanyi, avuga ko mu mateka y’u Rwanda ubuyobozi bubi ari bwo bwazanye amacakubiri n’ibindi bibazo byose byayogoje u Rwanda, kandi ko nta wundi wabibohora Abanyarwanda, uretse Abanyarwanda bakunda igihugu. Gusa, ku wa 2 Ukwakira 1990 Maj. Gen. Rwigema yahise agwa ku rugamba i Kagitumba mu karere ka Nyagatare.

Kagame yayoboye urugamba mu bihe bitoroshye

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Urugamba rwari rurimbanije, rwari ruyobowe na Paul Kagame

Nyuma y’urupfu rwa Rwigema, ku wa 20 Ukwakira 1990, Paul Kagame yavuye muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika (USA), maze akomeza kuyobora urugamba rwo kubohora u Rwanda. Ku wa 1 Ugushyingo 1990 ni bwo hatangiye intambara yo mu ishyamba, ndetse ku itariki ya 3 Ugushyingo 1990 Inkotanyi zifata umuhanda ujya Gatuna.

Ku wa 23 Mutarama 1991 Inkotanyi ziyobowe na Kagame ni bwo zafashe gereza ya Ruhengeri, maze muri Werurwe habaho guhagarika intambara, hashyirwaho G.O.M (Abarorerezi b’abasirikare). Kanama–Ugushyingo, Inkotanyi zashinze ibirindiro mu Mutara, ari yo ntambara y’ibirindiro.

Ku wa 16 Nzeli 1991 habayeho imishyikirano ya Leta y’u Rwanda na FPR-Inkotanyi ibera mu cyahoze ari Zayire (Repubulika Iharanira Demukarasi ya Kongo) ahitwa Nsele-Gbadolite. Muri Werurwe-Kanama 1992 hari intambara yo kugota.

Ubutegetsi bwa Habyarimana bumaze kubona ko bwugarijwe n’intambara y’Inkotanyi ziyobowe na Paul Kagame, hatangiye imishyikirano y’Arusha, hari ku ya 4 Kanama 1992. Ku itariki ya 1 Nyakanga 1992 habayeho guhagarika intambara (ceasefire).

Gashyantare 1993, ubutegetsi bwariho mu Rwanda bwatangiye kugerageza Jenoside, maze hakorwa ubwicanyi bw’Abagogwe. Ku ya 2 Gashyantare 1993 Inkotanyi zugariza Kigali ngo zihagarike ubwicanyi, hanyuma zisubira mu birindiro.

Ku itariki ya 3 Kanama 1993 imishyikirano y’Arusha yarakomeje, maze ku itariki ya 28 Ukuboza 1993 Inkotanyi zijya muri CND i Kigali. Ku itariki ya 6 Mata 1994, habayeho ihanurwa ry’indege yari itwaye Habyarimana, maze ubutegetsi bwariho butangira Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi yari imaze igihe itegurwa. Ni bwo Inkotanyi zahagurutse kugira ngo zihagarike Jenoside.

Uru rugamba rwo kubohora u Rwanda rwasojwe ku itariki ya 4 Nyakanga 1994, ari bwo ingabo zari iza FPR-Inkotanyi zahagaritse na Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi. Ku itariki ya 19 Nyakanga 1994 hashyizweho Leta y’Ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda, kuko byagaragaye ko ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda ari rwo rufatiro rwo kubaka igihugu kirangwa n’ubuyobozi buboneye, bwubahiriza uburenganzira bwa buri wese, kandi buha Abanyarwanda amahirwe angana.

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Nyuma y’urugamba rwo kubohora igihugu, abana b’Abanyarwanda bahawe amahirwe angana, bitabwaho kimwe betegurirwa ejo hazaza heza

Kuva icyo gihe u Rwanda rwasubijwe Abanyarwanda nk’uko ari cyo urugamba rwo kubohora igihugu rwari rugamije, abari barameneshejwe mu rwababyaye kimwe n’abari barahunze intambara baratahuka, bose bafatanya gusana no kongera kubaka bundi bushya u Rwanda. Ubu u Rwanda rw’Abanyarwanda ni igihugu cy’intangarugero ku isi mu nzego zose, igihugu amahanga yigiraho, agatangaho urugero.

U Rwanda ruragendwa, Abanyarwanda bafite agaciro, bafite ishema ryo kwitirirwa u Rwanda, harabura igihe cy’imyaka itatu gusa, muri 2020, Abanyarwanda bakabarirwa mu baturage bafite ubukungu buciriritse ku isi, nyuma yo kubwubaka haherewe ku busa, mu gihe cy’imyaka 23 gusa ishize. Icyizere ni cyose bashingiye ku byo bagezeho, ejo hazaza ni heza kurusha none.

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