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Politiki | Mu Rwanda

Uruhare rwa bamwe mu basirikare bakuru b’u Bufaransa muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi   

  Yanditswe na CNLG
 1 month ago

 
 

Gukomeza kwinangira kw’abayobozi b’u Bufaransa banga kwemeza ibyavuye muri anketi y’impuguke z’Abafransa yakorewe mu Rwanda muri 2010, yemeza ko ibisasu byahanuye iyo ndege byaturutse mu kigo cya gisirikare cya KANOMBE cyangwa mu nknegero zacyo za hafi, ni uburyo bufifitse bugamije gukomeza intambara abo bayobozi batangiye mu Rwanda barwanya FPR-INKOTANYI guhera 1990.

Abategetsi benshi b’Ubufaransa bagize uruhare muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, haba mu kuyitegura, kuyikora cyangwa mu kugambana, none ntibashaka ko ibyo bakoze bijya ahagaragara. Uruhare rw’abasirikare makumyabiri na babiri[1] (22) ni urugero rudashidikanywaho nkuko tubisesengura muri iyi nyandiko.

1) Lieutenant-colonel Michel ROBARDEY

a) Robardey yigishije ibikwa muri mudasobwa ry’abantu bagomba kwicwa

Michel Robardey yageze mu Rwanda muri Nzeri 1990, ahava muri Mata 1994. Robardeyyayoboye itsinda ry’abajandarume b’abafaransa ryari rigizwe na majoro Corrière na ba ‘adjudants-chefs” Nicolas, Colle na Salvy. Bayobowe na Robardey, abo bajandarume batekereje banashyiraho icyo bise “Fichier central” cyangwa se “CRIMINOLOGIE”, bukaba bwari uburyo bwo kubika amakuru yabafasha kuba bafite urutonde rw’amazina y’abantu bashakishwa cyangwa bagomba gushakishwa. Urwo rutonde wasangaga rureba mbere na mbere Abatutsi n’abanyapolitike b’Abahutu batavugaga rumwe na Leta. Kubashyira ku rutonde byari bigamije guteganya uburyo bwo kubarimbura muri jenoside.

b) Urutonde rw’amazina rwakozwe na Robardey n’itsinda rye rwarifashishijwe cyane muri jenoside

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Abasirikare b’Abafaransa bagize uruhare mu gutoza Interahamwe

Ikorwa ry’urwo rutonde ryabaye hagati ya 1992 na 1994. Ububi bw’urwo rutonde rw’amazina bwari bwaramaganywe n’abayobozi bamwe b’abanyarwanda b’icyo gihe batavugaga rumwe na Leta. Muri Gashyantare 1993, Minisitiri w’intebe, Dr Dismas Nsengiyaremye, yandikiye Minisitiri w’ingabo w’u Rwanda yamagana urwo rutonde rw’abantu bagomba gutotezwa anategeka ko bivanwaho. Kandi koko, iyo hataba urutonde rw’amazina, abicanyi ntibari kubasha kumenya aho abantu benshi bishwe mu 1994 bari batuye. Hari inyandiko y’inzego z’iperereza z’u Bufaransa yemera ko kuva ku munsi wa mbere jenoside yatangiriyeho, “bitwaje urutonde rw’amazina rwakozwe mbere, abasirikare barindaga umukuru w’igihugu batangiye kwica Abatutsi bose ndetse n’Abahutu bakomoka mu Mjyepfo y’igihugu cyangwa abashyigikiye amashyaka ahanganye n’iryari riri ku butegetsi”. Ibi birerekana ububi uru rutonde rwagize muri Jenoside.

c) Robardey yayoboye ibikorwa by’iyicarubozo

Muri ya “centre” ye, Robardey yakoze ibikorwa byo guhata ibibazo ku buryo buhutaza abantu ibihmbi n’ibihumbi bahafungiwe. Michel Robardey yari ahafite itsinda ayoboye.Bakoranaga n’abajandarume b’abanyarwanda. Muri Gashyantare 1993, majoro Corrière ayobowe na Robardey, bakoreye iyicarubozo abatutsi babiri, Rudasingwa Japhet na Byukusenge anne Marie,mu mazu ya “Criminologie” babashinja ko bahaye amafoto ikinyamakuru cyo mu Rwanda, Le Flambeau, yerekana abasirikare b’abafaransa bafasha ingabo z’u Rwanda (FAR) ku rugamba. Rudasingwa yaje kubirokoka kuko inshuti ze zabashije gutabaza abahagarariye Komite mpuzamahanga itabara imbabare (Comité de la croix rouge internationale) na MINUAR.

d) Robardey yashyigikiye ibyaha byakozwe n’ubuyobozi bwa Juvénal Habyarimana

Mu gihe bari muri “criminologie”, abajandarume b’abafaransa, bayobowe na Michel Robardey,mu gihe cy’ibazwa, bazimangatanyaga nkana ikimenyetso icyo ari cyo cyose cyashoboraga kwerekana uruhare rwa Leta y’u Rwanda mu bikorwa by’iterabwoba n’ubwicanyi yakoreraga mu gihugu, nko gutera za gerenade no kwica abantu maze bikitirirwa FPR ku binyoma.

e) Robardey ahakana jenoside ku buryo butihishira

Muri iki gihe, Michel Robardey ari mw’ishyirahamwe ry’abahakana Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi ryitwa France-Turquoise rigizwe n’abahoze ari abasirikare b’u Bufaransa bari mu Rwanda mu gihe cya “Opération Turquoise” mu 1994. Michel Robardey yashinze kandi urubuga “blog” anyuzamo ibitekerezo bihakana bikanapfobya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi. Akunze kujya mu nama mpuzamahanga nyinshi zihakana jenoside akanatanga ubuhamya bugamije gushinjura abakoze jenoside mu Rwanda bakurikiranwe n’ubutabera bwo mu Bufaransa cyangwa bwo mu bindi bihugu. Yatanze ubuhamya nk’ubwo bushinjura Simbikangwa mu Rukiko rw’i Paris.

2) Colonel Gilbert Canovas

Gilbert Canovas yari umuyobozi wungirije ushinzwe ibikorwa (adjoint opérationnel) akanaba umujyanama w’umugaba w’ingabo za jandarumeri z’u Rwanda. Arashinjwa kuba yaragize uruhare mw’ishyirwaho za bariyeri abasivile benshi biciweho. Tariki ya 12 Mata 1991, ari kumwe na majoro Christian Refalo, Gilbert Canovas yagiye mu Ruhengeri “mu rwego rwo kwiga uburyo ishyamba ry’ibirunga riri mu maboko y’Inyenzi ku buryo kugerageza kuryinjiramo byananiranye, ryagarurwa kandi rikanacungwa” , nk’uko abyiyandikira. Muri iki gikorwa, Gilbert Canovasyashyizeho umugambi wiswe kwirwanaho kw’abaturage waje kuba intandaro yo kwigisha abaturage uburyo bwo kwica imbaga y’abantu.

Muri raporo ye yo ku wa 30 Mata 1991, Gilbert Canovas aragira ati: “Ni ishyirwaho ry’udutsinda duto duto tw’abasivile, bigira abaturage, ahantu hakomeye, ku buryo baburizamo ibikorwa by’inyeshyamba”. Abo basivile avuga si abandi, ni Interahamwe zatojwe ibya gisirikare kugira ngo gusa zizice abandi basivile zihereye ku bwoko cyangwa ku mpamvu za politike. Urundi rugero rw’ukuntu yari ku ruhande rw’ubuyobozi, ni umunsi ahura na Michel Robardey tariki ya 18 Gashyantare 1991 ndetse n’umugaba w’ingabo za jandarumeri z’u Rwanda, ubwo “yivugiye ko yiteguye gutanga inkunga ye ngo arinde umurwa mukuru Kigali ku buryo bushimishije”.

3) Colonel Jacques Rosier

Jacques Rosier yabaye umuyobozi wa DAMI (Détachement d’Assistance Militaire et d’Instruction) hagati ya Kamena 1992 n’Ugushyingo 1992. Yari afite inshingano nyamukuru yo kubangamira urugamba rwa APR (Armée Patriotique Rwandaise).

Ni muri uyu mwaka wa 1992, ubwo DAMI yakoreraga mu nkambi za gisirikare za Gabiro, Gako, Mukamira na Bigogwe, habayeho itozwa rikomeye ry’Interahamwe muri izo nkambi ndetse no muri kaminuza, i Nyakinama. Jacques Rosier niwe wari uyoboye iyo myitozo. Ubwicanyi bwabereye mu Bugesera mu ntangiriro za Werurwe 1992, n’ubwakorewe Abagogwe mu Ugushyingo 1992 no muri Mutarama 1993, bwakozwe n’Interahamwe zatojwe n’abafaransa bari muri DAMI.

Iyo myitozo yanamaganywe muri raporo y’ibanze ya Komisiyo y’impuguke za ONU muri aya magambo: “ Nyuma y’aho, hashinzwe inkambi itorezwamo Interahamwe mu Mutara. Imyitozo yamaraga igihe cy’ibyumweru bitatu, ikagenerwa abantu 300 bigishwaga kwanga urunuka Abatutsi. Banigishwaga kandi uburyo bwo gukora ubwicanyi bugamije kurimbura imbaga”.

4) Capitaine Joubert Etienne

Yabaye umuyobozi wa DAMI, ishami ryiswe Panda, kuva tariki 23 Ukuboza 1992 kugera tariki 18 Gicurasi 1993. Etienne Joubert yagize uruhare mw’itozwa ry’Interahamwe mu nkambi ya gisirikare ya Gabiro. Ni we wari ukuriye iyo myitozo akanayiyobora nk’umuyobozi wa DAMI. Muri iyo nkambi ya Gabiro, Etienne Joubert n’abo yayoboraga, batozaga amatsinda atatu atandukanye: Abahutu b’abarundi, abasirikare b’u Rwanda n’Interahamwe.

Mu gihe cya “Turquoise”, Etienne Joubert, yagarutse mu Rwanda, ku Gikongoro, bwa mbere ayoboye ingabo z’inzobere bita COS (Commandement des Opérations Spéciales), anashingwa iperereza, nyuma aza kuyobora ibikorwa bya gisirikare muri Turquoise Gikongoro. Abo yayoboraga muri COS ni bo basirikare ba mbere b’abafaransa bageze ku Gikongoro tariki ya 24 Kamena 1994 bagahita bashinga ibirindiro mu mazu ya “Village d’enfants SOS”. Etienne Joubertyahise atangira gukorana n’abayobozi bakoze jenoside, barimo perefe Bucyibaruta na kapiteni Sebuhura, aba bakaba bari kw’isonga ry’abateguye jenoside muri perefegitura ya Gikongoro. Kuri SOS no kuri Collège ACEPR, abasirikare yari ayoboye bishe Abatutsi, basambanya ku ngufu abagore banabakorera ihohoterwa rishingiye ku gitsina. Etienne Joubert ntacyo yigeze akora ngo aburizemo ibyo bintu.

5) Abandi basirikare bakuru b’abafaransa bagize uruhare mu byaha byakozwe mu Rwanda hagati ya 1990 na 1994

Colonel Didier Tauzin

Yabaye umujyanama mu bya gisirikare wa Perezida Habyarimana kuva mu 1990 kugeza mu 1993, aba umuyobozi wa DAMI Panda na “Opération Chimère” (kuva tariki 22 Gashyantare kugeza 28 Werurwe 1993), nyuma aba komanda, mu gito wa “Turqouise Gikongoro”. Yagize uruhare mu gikorwa cyo gutoza Interahamwe no kurwanya FPR mu 1993. Ndetse yaranabyigambye agira ati: “Ntabwo tworohereje FPR ubuzima! (...),Twaburijemo amatwara yayo yo kugera i Kigali. (...) Nta mpongano[2]”. Yarwanyije yivuye inyuma Amasezerano y’amahoro y’Arusha yabonaga ‘ko adashoboka namba, ko ari urukozasoni, ndetse ko ari ubugwari no kugambanira igihugu, kuko yatumye imitwe yitwara gisirikare ya FPR yinjira mu gihugu”. Tariki ya 4 Nyakanga 1994, yabwiye itangazamakuru ko ingabo z’u Bufaransa zitazazuyaza “kumena agahanga FPR” kandi ko itegeko ari: “ntihagire umuntu n’umwe usigara”. Yarahamagawe asimburwa na koloneli Patrice Sartre. Mu gitabo yanditse mu 2011 “Rwanda: Je demande justice pour la France et ses soldats” (Rwanda: Ndasaba ko Ubufaransa n’ingabo zabwo barenganurwa), Tauzin ahakana ko Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi itabayeho.

Colonel René Galinié

Yari ashinzwe gucunga umutekano akaba n’umuyobozi w’ibikorwa bya gisirikare mu Rwanda (Kanama 1988-Nyakanga 1991), ayobora “Opération Noroît ( kuva mu 1990 kugeza muri Nyakanga 1991, uretse mu Gushyingo 1990), aba ushinzwe umutekano muri ambasade y’u Bufaransa mu Rwanda anayoboye ishami rishinzwe ubutwererane mu bya gisirikare (Nyakanga 1991-Mata 1994), ayobora “Opération Noroît kuva muri Nyakanga 1991 kugeza mu Kuboza 1993 uretse muri Gashyantare na Werurwe 1993. Azi neza ubwicanyi bwakozwe n’ubutegetsi bwa Habyarimana, yakomeje kubuhishira no kubuha ubufasha mu bikoresho.

Colonel Bernard Cussac

Yari ashinzwe umutekano akaba n’umuyobozi w’ishami rishinzwe ubutwererane muri ambasade y’u Bufaransa mu Rwanda (Nyakanga 1991-Mata 1994), ayobora “opération Noroît” (Nyakanga 1991-Ukuboza 1993, uretse muri Gashyantare na Werurwe 1993). Yagize uruhare mw’ihatwa ry’ibibazon’itoteza ryakorerwaga imfungwa z’intambara za FPR n’iry’abasivili bitaga ibyitso bya FPR. Abenshi muri bo barishwe. Muri raporo ye yo kw’itariki 5 Mata 1993, arivugira ku buryo bugaragara ko hashobora kuzaba jenoside.

Lt Col. Jean-Jacques Maurin

Yari yungirije ushinzwe ibikorwa mw’ishami rishinzwe umutekano mu Rwanda kuva mu 1992 kugeza mu 1994 ari n’umujyanama w’umugaba w’ingabo z’u Rwanda (FAR). Yari ashinzwe kugira inama koloneli Serubuga, umugaba w’ingabo za FAR. Babonanaga buri munsi, bakavugana ibijyanye n’ibikorwa bya gisirikare, gutegura no gutoza abasirikare. Nk’uko abyivugira, yagize uruhare “mu gutegura ibikorwa by’intambara bya buri munsi no mu gufata ibyemezo” muri FAR. Maurin yanafatanyije kuyobora “opération Amaryllis” na koloneli Henri Poncet. Muri iyi “opération Amaryllis” abatutsi benshi barishwe abafaransa barebera nko ku kibuga cy’indege cya Kigali.

Commandant Grégoire de Saint Quentin

Yari umujyanama mu bya tekinike wa Komanda ya batayo Para-commando, majoro Aloys Ntabakuze, akaba n’umusirikare mukuru utoza abarwanira mu kirere, kuva muri Kanama 1992 kugeza tariki 12 Mata 1994. Yari mu nkambi ya gisirikare y’i Kanombe akaba ari nawe wayoboye ibikorwa byo gusaka indege. Niwe watoje abicanyi bo muri batayo para-commando anayobora ibikorwa byabereye i Kanombe ku mugoroba wo kw’itariki 6 Mata 1994.

Colonel Dominique Delort

Yayoboye Noroît na DAMI. Muri Gashyantare na Werurwe 1993, abasirikare b’abafaransa yari ayoboye, mu nkambi za Bigogwe na Mukamira, batozaga abasirikare n’Interahamwe. Muri Gashyantare 1993, yashyizeho uburyo bwo kugenzura ibyangombwa mbere yo kwinjira muri Kigali ku mihanda Ruhengeri/Kigali, Gitarama/Kigali na Rwamagana/Kigali. Iri genzura rikomeye, ndetse hanashyirwaho za bariyeri, ryakorwaga kenshi k’ubufatanye na jandarumeri y’u Rwanda. Abasivili benshi barahagaritswe kubera ubwoko bwabo bamwe baburirwa irengero ndetse baza no kwica. Koloneli Delort yarabyemeye imbere y’abadepite b’Ubufaransa mu 1998.

Nyuma y’aho, Dominique Delort yakomeje kwanga urunuka FPR akayitirira ibyaha byakorwaga na FAR. Urugero ni nko muri Werurwe 1993, ubwo yabwirizaga Lt Col. Michel Robardey kugira “ubushishozi bw’umwihariko kw’ikusanya ry’amakuru ku bwicanyi n’ibindi byaha bya FPR kugira ngo babashe kubangamira poropagande yayo[3]”.

Lieutenant-colonel Jean-Louis Nabias

Tariki 3 Gicurasi 1992, yasimbuye koloneli Chollet ku buyobozi bwa DAMI PANDA. Akazi ke kari ako gutoza imitwe ya FAR, yibanze cyane cyane ku byo batari bafitemo ubushobozi buhagije nko gucengera ninjoro cyangwa se amayeri yo kuzenguruka. Indi myitozo y’icyo bita “appui feu” nayo yaratanzwe kuko aba FAR berekanagamo ubushobozi budahagije. Iyo myitozo yatangirwaga mu nkambi za gisirikare za Gabiro na Bigogwe. Ubwo ni ko n’Interahamwe zahabwaga iyo myitozo muir ibyo bigo bya gisilikare.

Commandant Denis Roux

Kuva m’Ugushyingo 1991 kugeza muri Gashyantare 1993, yabaye umuyobozi wa DAMI, ishami rishinzwe kurinda umukuru w’igihugu. Iyo DAMI yatoje abashinzwe kurinda umukuru w’igihugu ndetse n’Interahamwe ari zo zaje kuba za ruharwa mu gukora jenoside. Umwe mu batanze iyo myitozo, adjudant Thierry Prungnaud, yarabyiyemereye tariki 22 Mata 2005 imbere y’abanyamakuru ba France Culture agira ati: “Ndabivuga uko biri; abafaransa batoje imitwe yitwara gisirikare mu 1992. Byakozwe inshuro nyinshi. Abagize umutwe ushinzwe kurinda umukuru w’igihugu bakoze ubwicanyi n’ubundi bugizi bwa nabi cyane cyane hagati ya 1992 na 1994”.

Capitaine Paul Barril

Mu 1990, mbere y’uko FPR itangira urugamba, Barril yakoze igenzura ry’ingabo z’u Rwanda. Yivugiraga we ubwe ko ari umujyanama wa perezida Habyarimana. Muri jenoside, yishyuwe na Guverinoma yakoraga ubwicanyi ngo atoze abasirikare kabuhariwe ngo hakorwe igikorwa cyiswe “Insecticide” (Kwica udukoko), cyari kigamije kurimbura Abatutsi. We ubwe ariyemerera ko yari mu Rwanda tariki ya 7 Mata 1994 ndetse muri Kamena 1994 yaneretse TV France 2, icyuma yavugaga ko ari agasanduku kirabura k’indege Falcon 50 ya Habyarimana. Ni umwe mu bahakana Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi. Ni nawe ufatwa nk’intandaro y’ingirwa perereza ryakozwe n’umucamanza Bruguière.

6) Abasirikare bakuru b’abafaransa bakoze ibyaha muri “Turquoise”

Abasirikare bakuru bayoboye Turquoise i Cyangugu, Kibuye na Gikongoro barashinjwa ibyaha bikomeye byakozwe muri icyo gihe none ubu barahakana jenoside ku buryo butihishira.

Général Jean-Claude LAFOURCADE

Jean-Claude Lafourcade yari umuyobozi w’ikirenga w’ingabo z’abafaransa zari muri Turquoise kuva tariki 22 Kamena kugeza 22 Kanama 1994. Abo basirikare b’abafaransa bafatanyije n’abayobozi bakoze jenoside. Ubuhamya bw’abasirikare bakuru b’abafaransa bwakiriwe n’abanyamakuru mu gihe cya Turquoise burerekana ko abafaransa bari bazi abo bafatanya nabo mu guhitamo gukorana n’abayobozi bakoraga jenoside. Nka capitaine de frégate Marin Gillieryabwiye umunyamakuru Christian Lecomte muri Nyakanga 1994 ngo; “Tuzi neza ko abenshi mu ba superfe n’ababurugumesitiri bo muri aka gace bijanditse mu bwicanyi bw’Abatutsi, ndetse ko ari nabo babubwiriza.Twakusanyije ubuhamya bubyemeza. Ariko, muri aka kanya, ni bo bonyine dushobora kuvugana iruhande rwa miliyoni n’igice y’impunzi a’abahutu baje ikivunga muri aka gace.”

Muri Turquoise, iyo hataba ubufatanye bw’abasirikare b’abafaransa bari bayobowe na jenerali Jean-Claude Lafourcade, ibyaha byakorewe i Cyangugu, ku Kibuye no ku Gikongoro ntibyari kuba. Ibyo byaha byarashyigikiwe mu buryo bw’ibikoresho nk’intwaro, imodoka zitwara abantu n’ibintu ndetse n’amavuta(carburant) yazo byose bitangwa n’abasirikare b’abafaransa. Nyamara, inshingano ONU yari yahaye Turquoise yashimangiraga ko “ari ubufasha buhabwa bantu kandi nta kurobanura”.

Colonel Jacques Hogard

Jacques Hogard yari umuyobozi wa Turquoise i Cyangugu. Yaretse abo ayobora bica abatutsi, basambanya abagore ku ngufu banabakorera ihohoterwa ritandukanye rishingiye ku gitsina. I Cyangugu, abasirikare b’abafaransa bahaye intwaro Interahamwe, babashishikariza guhiga abatutsi no kubica. Mu nkambi ya Nyarushishi yari irinzwe n’abafaransa, Abatutsi baturukaga hanze yayo batangirwaga n’Interahamwe mbere yo kubasha kwinjira mu nkambi. Impunzi z’Abatutsi zageragezaga kujya gushaka ibyokurya kubera inzara, Interahamwe zahitaga zibica abasirikare b’abafaransa barebera.

Jacques Hogard yajyaga kenshi i Nyarushishi. Uko abo bantu bari babayeho yarabyiboneraga ariko akareka ibyaha bigakomeza gukorwa. Aho abafaransa bari bakambitse i Cyangugu, gusambanya abagore ku ngufu byari igikorwa cya buri munsi. Mu nkambi yari kuri Sitade Kamarampaka, Interahamwe zazaniraga abakobwa abafaransa ku manywa y’ihangu. Tariki 17 Ukuboza 2005, Jacques Hogard yafunguye urubuga (blog) yashyiragaho amagambo ahakana jenoside ndetse anatuka Abatutsi abita inyenzi. Yarufunze muri 2007 kubera gutinya ko ubutabera bwamukurikirana kubera gutukana ku mugaragaro.

Colonel Jacques Rosier

Muri Kamena 1994, Jacques Rosier yagarutse mu Rwanda ari umuyobozi w’ibikorwa byihariye (COS) kuva tariki 22 Kamena kugeza 30 Nyakanga 1994 mu gace ka “Turquoise”. Iyicwa ry’Abatutsi mu Bisesero rikomoka ku myanzuro yafashe we ubwe. Jacques Rosier yari ku Kibuye tariki 26 Kamena 1994, ubwo yarebaga uko Lieutenant colonel Jean-Rémy Duval (alias Diego) n’abantu be 35 bari muri CPA-10 bafashe aho baba mw’ishuri ry’imyuga rya Kibuye. Niho yangiye gutanga uruhushya rwo gutabara abatutsi bo mu Bisesero bari babashije kurokoka kandi yari yamenyeshejwe ko bagiye kwicwa. Uwo munsi kandi, Jacques Rosier yemeje ko ubwicanyi bwakorwaga n’Interahamwe bufite ishingiro.Yabwiye abanyamakuru ati: “Imitwe yitwara gisirikare iri ku rugamba. Mu rwego rwo kutagira aho tubogamira, ntitugomba gutabara.Wenda ejo wasanga inyeshyamba zicengeye hano, ugasanga batwambitse ingofero”.

Colonel Sartre Patrice

Patrice Sartre yabaye umuyobozi wa Turquoise Gikongoro kuva tariki ya 5 kugeza ku ya 16 Nyakanga 1994, nyuma ajya ku Kibuye kuva tariki 16 Nyakanga kugeza tariki 21 Kanama 1994. Muri ibyo bihe, ibitero byinshi byakurikirwaga n’ubwicanyi no gusambanya ku ngufu n’ibindi bikorwa bitesha agaciro umuntu byarakozwe biyobowe n’abaturage b’abasivile. Nk’i Rubengera, abasirikare b’abafaransa, ku mabwiriza ya Patrice Sartre, bafatanyije n’abayobozi ba Komini Mabanza, bagize uruhare rugaragara muri jenoside. Abatutsi benshi bari bihishe, bamaze kumenya ko abasirikare b’abafaransa baje, basohotse mu bwihisho. Abafaransa bategetse ko abatutsi bari barundanye inyuma y’ibyumba by’amashuri bicwa. Mu gihe APR yakatazaga ku rugamba iri hafi yo kurutsinda, Patrice Sartre yakoresheje inama ebyiri akangurira abaturage guhunga. Iya mbere yabaye tariki 13 Nyakanga 1994, iya kabiri iba tariki 23 Nyakanga.

Capitaine de frégate Gillier Marin

Marin Gillier yayoboraga itsinda ry’abasirikare b’abafaransa bari bakambitse ku biro bya Komine Gishyita. Tariki 26 Kamena 1994, abanyamakuru b’abanyamahanga bamumenyesheje ko mu Bisesero hari abatutsi babashije kurokoka kandi ko hari abasivile b’Abatutsi bariho bahicirwa. Yajyanye na mugenzi we Diego ndetse n’abasirikare be. Bahuye n’abo banyabisesero barokotse babasiga batagira kirengera. I Gishyita, Marin gillier yari afite za kajugujugu z’intambara zogaga ibicu muri ako gace. Yari azi rero ibikorwa bya jenoside byakorerwaga aho hantu yari ashinzwe.
Lieutenant-Colonel Eric De Stabenrath

Eric De Stabenrath yayoboye Turquoise ku gikongoro kuva tariki ya 16 Nyakanga kugeza 22 Kanama 1994. Abasirikare b’abafaransa bamaze gukambika ku gikongoro, bahise bakorana n’abayobozi ba gisivile ndetse n’abagisirikare bari bamaze gukora jenoside muri perefegitura. Mu nkambi ya Murambi, abasirikare b’abafaransa bayicungaga, babazaga ubwoko uwo wese uyinjiyemo. Imbere mu nkambi, bashyiraga hamwe abarokotse jenoside, abasirikare ba FAR ndetse n’Interahamwe zari zimaze gukora jenoside. Ibi byahaye Interahamwe umwanya wo gukomeza ubwicanyi nyamara byaravugwaga ko ari ahantu hagenewe kugoboka abantu. Abanyamakuru b’abanyamahanga bahigereye kuva muri Nyakanga kugeza muri Kanama 1994 bavuze ukuntu abarokotse bageramiwe n’ubwicanya bwakorwaga n’Interahamwe. Ubwicanyi, gusambanya ku ngufu byakorerwaga aho Eric De Stabenrath yari atuye.

7) Abasirikare bakuru b’abafaransa bashinjwa ibyaha bakoze bari i Paris

Général Jacques Lanxade

Yabaye Umugaba w’ingabo wihariye wa perezida François Mitterand kuva muri Mata 1989 kugeza muri Mata 1991, nyuma aba umugaba w’ingabo (kuva Mata 1991 kugeza Nzeri 1995). Ku mabwiriza ya Jacques Lanxade, igisirikare cy’u Bufaransa cyakoze igikorwa cyo kwijandika mu byaha bikomeye byakorewe mu Rwanda hagati ya 1990 na 1994.

Nk’umugaba w’ikirenga w’ingabo, Jacques Lanxade yabonaga ama raporo yerekana amarorerwa yakorwaga n’ingabo z’u Rwanda, ubwicanyi, politike y’ivangura ndetse na jenoside, ariko akomeza kuzishyigikira aziha ibikoresho ndetse n’abantu byari bikenewe ngo zigire imyitozo n’ubushobozi bihagije. Mu 1991, ari kumwe n’umuyobozi w’ibiro bye, jenerali Pidancet na koloneli Delort, umuyobozi w’ububanyi n’amahanga, Jacques Lanxade yasuye u Rwanda. Icyo gihe yagiranye ibiganiro n’abayobozi bakuru b’igihugu n’ab’ingabo, anasura abasirikare bari muri “détachement Noroît” na DAMI. Icyo gihe yamenyeshejwe ubwicanyi bwakozwe na FAR ku Bagogwe mu Ruhengeri, nyamara aharekera abasilikare b’abafaransa batozaga abicanyi.

Jacques Lanxade yatsimbararaga ku myumvire ivuga ko FPR igizwe n’Abagande ndetse akanayitiranya n’Abatutsi bose muri rusange, gutyo aba yitiranyije intambara ya politike n’iy’ubwoko. Yemeraga ko demokarasi igomba gushingira kuri rubanda nyamwinshi aho gushingira ku bwinshi bw’ibitekerezo bizima. We yanahisemo gushyigikira iyo rubanda nyamwinshi. Ikibabaje gusumba, ni uko mu bitekerezo bya Jacques Lanxade, buri Mututsi yafatwaga nk’ingabo ya FPR, umwanzi w’u Bufaransa ugomba kurwanywa. Ibi bitekerezo by’ivanguramoko birigaragaza mu nyandiko ze nyinshi.

Ku mabwiriza ya Jacques Lanxade, muri 1991, abasirikare b’abafaransa bari muri DAMI Panda,bategetswe guha ubufasha FAR kugira ngo ubutegetsi bwongererwe ingufu za gisiirikare maze bubashe kugirana imishyikirano na FPR. Mu gihe cya jenoside, Jacques Lanxade yakomeje kugaragaza ibitekerezo by’irondabwoko n’ivangura byibasira Abatutsi. Mu kanama k’umwihariko kabaye tariki ya 22 Kamena 1994, n’ako kw’itariki 29 Kamena 1994, hagati ya François Mitterand na Jacques Lanxade, berekanye ibitekerezo by’ivanguramoko no gushyigikira abo bitaga Rubanda nyamwinshi y’Abahutu no kwamagana abo bitaga Abatutsi b’Abagande, ni ukuvuga FPR.

Muri make, inyandiko n’ubuhamya birerekana ko Jacques Lanxade yamenyeshwaga n’ushinzwe umutekano, uko ibintu byari byifashe mu Rwanda kuva mu 1990 kandi ko ibyemezo byinshi byafatwaga ari uko amaze kubyemera. Ambasaderi Jean-Michel Marlaud yiyemereye imbere ya MIP ko ubutumwa bwose bwavaga muri ambasade y’u Rwanda bwagenzurwaga n’uwari ushinzwe umutekano, nawe akabimenyesha Jacques Lanxade na Christian Quesnot. Nta gushidikanya, Jacques Lanxade yari umwe mu bikomerezwa by’abafaransa bari bazi neza ibyaha byakorerwaga mu Rwanda, kandi ni k’ubushake bwe yafashe icyemezo cyo gukorana n’abayobozi ba gisivile n’abagisirikare bakoze jenoside.

Général Christian Quesnot

Umugaba w’ingabo wihariye wa perezida Mitterand kuva mu 1991 kugeza mu 1995, Christian Quesnot ni umwe mu bashyigikiye bivuye inyuma ubutegetsi bwa Habyarimana. Ni we wamenyeshaga ubuyobozi bw’ingabo ibikorwa bya gisirikare by’ingabo z’u Bufaransa mu Rwanda, byaba ibyakorwaga k’uburyo buzwi cyangwa bwihishe. Mu nyandiko zose yagejeje kruri perezida Mitterand, Christian Quesnot yasabiraga ubufasha bukomeye ubutegetsi bwa Habyarimana n’ingabo zabwo.

Mu gihe cya jenoside, Christian Quesnot yavuganaga kenshi na perezida wa guverineme yakoraga jenoside,Théodore Sindikubwabo akanasaba perezida Mitterand ko Ubufaransa bwaha ingabo za FAR ubufasha bwa gisirikare. Tariki 29 Mata 1994, nyuma y’ibyumweru bitatu jenoside itangiye, Christian Quesnot yanditse amagambo asebya FPR agira ati: “FPR ni ishyaka ry’ ‘aba “fachistes” ntari nabona ahandi. Umuntu yarigereranya n’aba “Khmers noirs”. Bafitanye akagambane n’ababiligi”. Tariki ya 4 Gicurasi 1994, iryo sebanya ryarongeye. Tariki 6 Gicurasi 1994, Christian Quesnot yatanze inama yo gushyigikira abasirikare ba FAR kandi bariho bakora jenoside.

Tariki 24 Gicurasi, Jenerali Quesnot yarasubiriye, abwira perezida Mitterand ngo afate icyemezo ku buryo bwihuse cyo guha ubufasha bwa gisirikare butaziguye ingabo za FAR na guverinema y’inzibacyuho yitwaje ko: “ Kujya ku butegetsi mu karere kwa ba nyamuke bafite intego n’imitere idatandukanye n’iya aba “Khmers rouges” byazatuma haba ihungabana ry’akarere n’ingaruka abo bose bagize ubufatanye no kubera uruhande rumwe batari baratekerejeho mbere”. Ubukana bw’ayo magambo n’urwango abitse birerekana uburyo ahyigikiye ku bury bwimazeyo kandi abigambiriy ibitekerezo n’ibikorwa by’abakoze jenoside.

c) Général Jean-Pierre Huchon

Yari yungirije Jenerali Quesnot kuva muri Mata 1991 kugeza muri Mata 1993, nyuma aba umuyobozi ushinzwe iby’ubutwererane mu bya gisirikare kuva muri Mata 1993 kugeza mu Kwakira 1995. Huchon ntiyatandukanye n’umukuriye mu bitekerezo by’ivangura bari bafite ku Rwanda. Umushakashatsi Jean-Paul Gouteux yerekana neza ko Christian Quesnot na Jean-Pierre Huchon bagiraga uruhare ku byemezo perezidansi y’u bufaransa yafataga ku Rwanda.

Mu kazi ke,yashimangiye ibitekerezo by’ivanguramoko anahuza ibikorwa by’itangwa ry’intwaro, amasasu n’ibindi bikoresho bya gisirikare byagenerwaga aba FAR mbere ya jenoside no mu gihe yakorwaga. Izo ntwaro ni zo zakoreshejwe mu kwica abasivile b’inzirakarengane bishwe n’abasirikare n’indi mitwe yitwaraga gisirikare.

Mu kwezi kwa Gicurasi 1994, i Paris, Jean-Pierre Huchon yakiriye inshuro nyinshi mu biro bye lieutenant-colonel Kayumba Cyprien, wari ushinzwe ibikoresho muri minisiteri y’Ingabo y’u Rwanda wahamaze iminsi makumyabiri n’irindwi (27), ngo “ agerageza kwihutisha itangwa ry’intwaro n’amasasu ku ngabo z’u Rwanda”. Hari ndetse itumizwa ry’intwaro ryagejejwe kuri SOFREMAS, uruganda rugengwa na Leta y’u Bufaransa.

Tariki 9 Gicurasi 1994, Jean-Pierre Huchon yakiriye kandi lieutenant-colonel Ephrem Rwabalinda, umujyanama w’umugaba w’ingabo za FAR. Muri raporo y’ubutumwa, Ephrem Rwabalinda yavuze ibyibanzweho ubwo yari kumwe naJean- Pierre Huchon ari byo: “gushyigikira u Rwanda kw’Ubufaransa ku rwego mpuzamahanga;Kugira ingabo z’u Bufaransa mu Rwanda (...) kugira ngo haboneke inkunga mu bufatanye; ikoreshwa riziguye ry’abasirikare b’amahanga baba abari mu mirimo cyangwa abatayirimo”.

Rwabalinda yongeyeho ko Jean-Pierre Huchon yagiraga inama u Rwanda yo kugereka jenoside kuri FPR: “(...) Niba ntagikozwe ngo isura y’igihugu hanze ihinduke, abayobozi ba gisirikare n’aba politike b’u Rwanda bazafatwa nk’abayoboye ubwicanyi bwakozwe mu Rwanda. Yabigarutseho kenshi”. (...) Guha isura nziza igihugu hanze ku buryo buruseho ni kimwe mu byihutirwa tugomba kumenya. Amatelefone nzanye agomba kudufahsa kuva mu bwigunge imbere y’amahanga”. Rwabalinda agasoza agira ati: “Inziu y’ubufatanye mu bya gisirikare irategura ibikorwa byo kutugoboka”.

Umusozo

Isesengura ry’ibi bikorwa rirerekana ko abasirikare bo mu rwego rwo hejuru bakoze ibyaha bikomeye mu Rwanda. Kwanga irangizwa ry’amaperereza y’ubucamanza no gufata ibyemezo byo kudakurikiranwa n’ubutabera kw’abayobozi b’u Rwanda bahagaritse jenoside, nta kindi bigamije atari uguhishira ayo makosa. Barakomeza gusa intambara yo kurwanya FPR nk’uko babitangiye kuva mu 1990. Umunyamakuru Mehdi BA ntabwo abeshya iyo avuga ati: “Ubufaransa, ibyo ntibigishidikanywaho, bwari inkunga ya gisirikare ikomeye kurusha izindi y’ubutegetsi bw’u Rwanda mbere ya jenoside n’igihe yakorwaga. Ku rundi ruhande, abadipolomate n’abasirikare b’Ubufaransa bangaga urunuka FPR, kandi n’ubu baracyabikomeyeho[4]”.

Ntibitangaje ko umwunganizi mu by’aategeko wa Kayumba Nyamwasa aba Me Véronique TRUONG akaba ari nawe mwunganizi wa Christian Quesnot.

 

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