2017-06-28 15:02:12 clouds 27o High | Kigali Rwanda

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Guverinoma ikomeje kongera ubuso bwuhirwa mu Rwanda

Yanditswe na Claude Ntawitonda

Kuya 2017-04-25 06:30:25

 
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Guverinoma y’u Rwanda yihaye intego yo gufasha Abanyarwanda kuva ku buhinzi gakondo butagitanga umusaruro bagatangira gukora ububafasha mu iterambere ndetse bagasagurira isoko nyarwanda na mpuzamahanga.

Ingamba mu guhindura ubuhinzi zafashwe mu gihe butunze abarenga 80% by’Abanyarwanda. Gahunda yo kuhira (Irrigation Master Plan/IMP) mu mwaka wa 2010 yaratangijwe, nyuma yo kubona ko hari hegitari ibihumbi 589 zishobora kuhirwa mu gihugu.

Intego Leta yihaye ni iyo gushyiraho umusingi wo kuhira urambye ku buryo bitarenze mu mwaka wa 2020 hazaba hamaze kuhirwa hegitari zigera ku bihumbi 100. Iyi gahunda ni mwe mu zifite agaciro mu gushimangira ko Leta y’u Rwanda yageze ku ntego y’icyiciro cya kabiri cya gahunda y’imbaturabukungu ahateganyijwe kongerwa 8.5% mu musaruro mu buhinzi, n’uw’ubukungu bw’igihugu.

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Abanyarwanda barashishikarizwa gufata neza ibikorwa byo kuhira mu guharanira kugera ku musaruro wahangana ku isoko mpuzamahanga

Mu mwaka wa 2014-2015, umusaruro w’ubuhinzi wagabanutse ku kigero cya 4.5% bihungabanya gato icyizere cyo kugera ku ntego ijyanye no kugabanya ubukene no kongera umusaruro w’ubukungu. Ibi byatewe n’uko habaye ihindagurika ry’ikirere ku buryo budasanzwe, rigateza urukurikirane rw’amapfa n’imyuzure byagize ingaruka mbi ku musaruro w’ibikomoka ku buhinzi.

Mu mwaka wa 2014, Guverinoma y’u Rwanda yiyemeje ko bitarenze mu 2018 hazubakwa ibikorwa remezo byo kuhira biramba, bikomeye kandi bijyanye n’igihe ndetse bifite ubushobozi bwo guhindura ubuhinzi bukajyana n’igihe ari na ko bufasha mu kurema ubukungu no kwihaza mu biribwa.

Nubwo Minisiteri y’Ubihinzi n’Ubworozi yashyizeho gahunda yo kuhira ku buso bunini n’ubutoya, amahugurwa n’ibindi, hari byinshi bigikenewe gukorwa kugira ngo intego yashyizweho izabashe kugerwaho.

Minisiteri y’Ubuhinzi n’Ubworozi itangaza ko kugeza ubu ubutaka bumaze kuhirwa bubarirwa muri hegitari 44 330 zirimo hegitari 35 868 zo mu bishanga, 6 018 z’imusozi na 2,444 zuhirwa kubuso buto (small scale Irrigation). Ibi byerekana ko hamaze kuhirwa 7.5% y’ubutaka bukeneye kuhirwa mu Rwanda, bukaba buri munsi ya 50% y’ubugomba kuhirwa bitarenze mu mwaka wa 2020.

Buri wese ashobora kuyoboka uburyo bumworoheye bwo kuhira

Innocent Nzeyimana Umuyobozi w’ishami rishinzwe gahunda zo kuhira, gufata neza ubutaka no gukoresha imashini mu buhinzi mu kigo cy’igihugu gishinzwe guteza imbere ubuhinzi n’ubworozi (RAB), yashimangiye ko ingufu za Guverinoma zitanga icyizere cyo kugeza Abanyarwanda ku buhinzi bugezweho.

Nzeyimana yemeza ko Leta y’u Rwanda yabanje gushyiraho ikigega kivuye mu mafaranga yayo, yita no ku gushakisha n’abandi baterankunga nka World Bank, Ikigega mpuzamahanga giteza imbere ubuhinzi (IFAD), Banki Nyafurika itsura Amajyambere (AfDB), n’abandi bafatanyabikorwa kugira ngo batange umusanzu ku bikorwa yatangiye.

Hari kandi n’Ikigo Howard-Buffet Foundation cy’Umushoramari Howard -Buffet watanze miliyoni 500 z’amadolari ya Amerika zo kuhira, kikaba kimaze gufasha mu gutunganya no kuhira hegitari zirenga 1200.

Nzeyimana yagize ati “Leta yiyemeje gufasha Abanyarwanda gutezwa imbere no kuhira imyaka. Aho bisaba imbaraga kuri Leta y’u Rwanda, birasaba n’izindi mbaraga nyinshi cyane zo kwegereza abaturage ibikorwa remezo kuko uwo muco wo kuhira ntabwo bawufite.”

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Imyaka yuhiwe izamuka idakangwa n’imihindagurikire y’ibihe

Ahatangiye kuhirwa, umusaruro urigaragaza

Nzeyimana ashimangira ko abaturage bumvishwa uburyo bagomba gufata neza ibikorwa remezo byo kuhira bahawe, ati “Nukoresha bya byuma mu kuhira uzabona umusaruro mwinshi usagurire isoko, ubone amafaranga, imibereho yawe yiyongere.”

Bamwe mu bahinzi batangiye gukoresha uburyo bwo kuhira bahamya ko ubuhinzi bw’u Rwanda bwazahura ubukungu bw’igihugu ku kigero cyo hejuru mu gihe Abanyarwanda bose bumva neza agaciro ko kuhira, bagafasha Leta mu ishyirwa mu bikorwa ryayo.

Tugirinshuti Evariste ukorera ubuhinzi bw’ibigori ku buso bwa hegitari eshatu mu murenge wa Kigarama, Akarere ka Kirehe, ntiyemeranywa n’abavuga ko ubuhinzi butakigira umusaruro akurikije uburyo bwamuhinduye umumiliyoneri.

Itandukaniro mu mirima yuhirwa n'ituhirwa ririgaragaza

Mu gihembwe cya kabiri cya 2016 Tugirinshuti yasaruye toni zirenga 13 z’ibigori kandi ngo iyo imvura itaza kubura yateganyaga gusarura toni 25.

Yagize ati “Kugeza uyu munsi aho dutangiye gukora ubuhinzi buvuguruye, buhuje ubutaka, abahinzi bariyubatse mu buryo bushimishije. Umuhinzi ufite hegitari imwe byanze bikunze ku mwaka ashobora kubona hagati ya miliyoni imwe na miliyoni ebyiri; kuri hegitari imwe havamo toni esheshatu.”

Ikindi gahunda yo kuhira ijyana no guhugura abatekinisiye bo hasi bakoresha ibyuma. Minisiteri y’Ubuhinzi na Minisiteri y’Uburezi bafatanyije binyuze mu Kigo cy’Igihugu gishinzwe iterambere ry’ubuhinzi n’ubworozi (RAB) n’Ikigo cy’Igihugu gishinzwe guteza imbere imyuga n’ubumenyingiro (WDA) hahugurwa abaturage, abatekinisiye n’abenjenyeri.

Abaturage n’abatekinisiye bahugurirwa mu mashuri makuru y’imyuga n’ubumenyi ngiro nka IPRC Gishali na IPRC Huye. Ku rwego rw’abenjeniyeri hari bamwe boherezwa muri Isiraheli ahamaze koherezwa hafi 200, aboherejwe mu Buhinde barenga 50 n’abandi bigishirizwa mu muri Koleji y’Ubuhinzi n’Ubworozi yahoze yitwa ISAIE Busogo.

Umusaruro w’ubuhinzi n’ubworozi wongereye ukwihaza mu biribwa

Guverinoma y’u Rwanda iragaragaza icyizere cyo gukomeza kongera umusaruro w’ubuhinzi n’ukomoka ku bworozi nubwo ubuso buhingwaho n’ubwororerwaho mu gihugu butiyongera.

Guhera mu mwaka wa 2007 gahunda yo kongera umusaruro w’ubuhinzi (Crop Intensification Program) yatangijwe n’ingengo y’imari isaga miliyari icyenda na miliyoni 92, hagamijwe kongera umusaruro ukomoka ku buhinzi, Abanyarwanda bakarushaho kwihaza mu biribwa.

Umusaruro w'u Rwanda ushobora kuba indakemwa ku rwego mpuzamahanga

Imibare itangwa n’Ikigo cy’Igihugu cy’ibarurishamibare (NISR) yerekana ko Abanyarwanda barenga 80% bafite umutekano w’ibiribwa kugeza ubu. Iyi gahunda yo kongera umusaruro w’ubuhinzi yabigizemo uruhare kuko yibanze ku musaruro w’ibihingwa umunani ari byo ibigori, ingano, umuceri, ibirayi, urutoki, soya, ibishyimbo n’imyumbati. Ubu ngubu hiyongereyeho imboga n’imbuto mu rwego rwo kurwanya imbirire mibi.

Abahinzi bafashijwe guhuza ubutaka n’imikoreshereze yabwo, ifumbire iratumizwa inakwizwa mu baturage ku bufatanye bw’abikorera na Leta, ndetse hongerwa n’ibikorwa byo kwigisha uburyo bwo guhinga kijyambere binyuze muri gahunda y’iyamamazabuhinzi bushingiye ku mudugudu ya Twigire Muhinzi.

Dr Ndabamenye Telesphore, Umuyobozi w’Ishami ryo kongera umusaruro no kwihaza mu biribwa muri RAB avuga ko ibi byatumye umusaruro wiyongera kuko uw’ibigori n’ingano wikubye 6 mu gihe uw’ibirayi wikubye gatatu.

Umusaruro w’umuceri n’ibishyimbo wiyongereye ku kigero cya 30% mu myaka ine ishize. Gukoresha inyongeramusaruro n’imbuto y’indobanure na byo byongeye umusaruro ku kigero cyo hejuru ya 14% muri rusange.

Dr. Ndabamenye ati “Twashakaga ko muri uyu mwaka wa 2017 abaturage bakoresha inyongeramusaruro cyane cyane imbuto y’indobanure bagera hagati ya 70% na 100%. Iyo urebye aho bigeze ubu ni kuri 41%, ariko bitandukanira ku bahinga ku buso bwagutse (large scale farmers) n’abahinga ku buto (small scale farmers).”

Ibipimo by’Ikigo cy’igihugu gishinzwe ibarurishamire bigaragaza ko mu gihembwe cy’ihinga cya 2016A, abahinga ku buso buto bakoresha inyongeramusaruro y’ifumbire mvaruganda bagera kuri 32.1% mu gihe abahinga ku buso bwagutse bayikoresha bagera kuri 74.5% kuko basobanukiwe kandi bafite ubutaka bwagutse.

Ku gukoresha imbuto y’indobanure, abahinga ku buso bwagutse bageze kuri 69.5% mu gihe abahinzi bato bagera kuri 25.4%.

Ubutaka buhari burahagije ngo umusaruro wongerwe

Dr. Ndabamenye ashimangira ko kugeza ubu 40% by’ubuso buhingwa muri gahunda yo guhuza ubutaka ari bwo bubyazwa umusaruro mu buryo buboneye, agashimangira ko nubwo ubutaka bw’igihugu butiyongera, imikoreshereze yabwo ivuguruwe kandi ubutaka bwose bugahingwa nta cyabuza umusaruro gukomeza kwiyongera.

Imikoreshereze, imiturire n’imiterere mibi y’ubutaka bw’u Rwanda biracyari imbogamizi ku kongera umusaruro w’ubuhinzi. Ku ruhande rumwe hari ubutaka bugihari, nko mu majyepfo y’u Rwanda ahitwa mu mayaga, budakoreshwa biturutse ku mateka y’igihugu mu gihe n’aho bwakabaye bukoreshwa neza usanga abaturage babutuyemo nabi, cyangwa imiterere yabwo isaba imbaraga nyinshi ngo bubyazwe umusaruro.

Minisiteri y’Ubuhinzi n’Ubworozi isanga mu gihe hakiri ubutaka butarabyazwa umusaruro hakwiye gukorwa byinshi kugira ngo na bwo bubyazwe umusaruro harimo gukoresha inyongeramusaruro z’ifumbire harimo imborera ndetse n’ishwagara, imbuto y’indobanure kuhira n’ibindi.

Dr. Ndabamenye yatanze urugero rw’uko muri hagunda yo guhuza imikoreshereze y’ubutaka ibigori bisigaye bihingwa kuri hegitari 170,000 mu gihe mu mwaka wa 2007 zari ku 14,000; ati “Ku bigori twatangiye haboneka hagati ya toni imwe na toni ebyiri kuri hegitari ariko ubu zigera hati ya i toni eshatu n’igice na toni eshanu ndetse hari abahinzi bageza kuri toni esheshatu cyane cyane muri za kiperative zifite ubuso buhujwe.”

Mu gukomeza guharanira kwihaza mu biribwa haracyakenewe amatoni n’amatoni, ari nayo mpamvu hakomeje kwibandwa ku gukoresha ikoranabuhanga mu buhinzi, kuhira n’izindi gahunda zifasha guhangana n’imihindagurikire y’ibihe.

Umukamo w’inka witezweho guhindura imibereho ya benshi

Umusaruro w’ibikomoka ku mata wagaragaje ko ufite uruhare mu gukura imbaga y’abaturage mu bukene haba ku borozi, abacuruzi b’amata ndetse n’abayongerera agaciro.

Minisiteri y’Ubuhinzi n’Ubworozi itangaza ko agaciro k’amata kabarirwa muri miliyari 79.7 z’amafaranga y’u Rwanda, kandi amata n’ibiyakomokaho bigira uruhare rwa 15% ku musaruro w’umuturage na 6% ku musaruro w’igihugu.

Umusaruro w'ibikomoka ku mata usigaye ugira uruhare ku bukungu bw'igihugu

Uruhare rw’amata ku musaruro w’igihugu ntabwo uhabwa agaciro cyane kuko uba wahujwe n’uw’ibikomoka ku bworozi muri rusange ariko ni igicuruzwa gifatiye runini ubukungu bw’u Rwanda kiramutse kibyajwe umusaruro nk’uko bikwiye.

Mu gihe intumbero ya Guverinoma y’u Rwanda ari ukuzaba igihugu cyihagije mu bukungu bitarenze mu mwaka wa 2020, umusaruro w’amata witezweho kunganira biruseho umusaruro w’imbere mu gihugu (GDP), ubukungu bw’abaturage, gufasha mu guhanga imirimo mishya kuva aho akamirwa kugeza aho yongererwa agaciro n’ibindi.

Umusaruro wagutse w’amata mu Rwanda watumye hashyirwaho gahunda y’igihugu igamije gukurikirana uko ukusanywa, ugatunganywa ndetse ukagezwa ku bacuruzi n’abaguzi (National Dairy Strategy/NDS) muri gahunda y’Ibaturabukungu (EDPRS).

Gukusanya no gutunganya umukamo byaranogejwe

Mu rwego rwo kubungabunga umusaruro w’amata hashyizweho amakusanyirizo n’inganda zifasha kuyongerera agaciro kugira ngo abe yacuruzwa no hanze y’u Rwanda.

Kugeza ubu mu Rwanda hari amakusanyirizo arenga 60 n’inganda ziyatunganya zirenga 25 cyane ko gukusanya no gutunganya amata ari byo bikwiye kwitonderwa ngo agumane ubuziranenge. Umusaruro ubarirwa kuri 75% mu gihugu ucuruzwa mu bacuruzi basanzwe mu gihe usigaye ari wo ugezwa ku makusanyirizo ari na ho akenshi uva ugurishwa inganda ziwongerera agaciro.

Hari gahunda yorohereza imikorere y’amakusanyirizo mu gihugu kugira ngo n’aborozi boroherwe no kuyagezaho umusaruro wabo kuko agira ibiciro bidahinduka nk’uko bigenda ku bacuruzi basanzwe mu guharanira ko umusaruro mwinshi watunganywa ukagera ku isoko mpuzamahanga.

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